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Переводчик от промт. Основные особенности программы PROMT. Использование англо-русских словарей

PROMT Professional позволяет качественно и быстро перевести слова и документы, веб-сайт либо сообщение, а также создавать и объединять корпоративные базы переведенных текстов, что удобно при работе с типовыми документами – например, договорами либо инструкциями.

Чем хорош PROMT Professional:
перевода документов в приложениях Microsoft Office 2000-2010 (Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint) и Adobe (Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Professional),
перевода интернет-ресурсов в браузерах Internet Explorer и Mozilla Firefox,
подключение доп словарей – созданных юзером или входящих в состав Коллекций словарей PROMT,
создание и подключение баз Translation Memory для перевода типовых документов и терминов в согласовании с корпоративными стандартами,
перевода сообщений в ICQ, QIP, Skype, Windows Live Messenger,
работы с текстами, содержащими специализированную или отраслевую лексику и термины.
Переводчик поддерживает 6 основных европейских языков: британский, российский, немецкий, французский, испанский и итальянский и другие (при желании)
Работа с определениями и специализированной лексикой
использование собственных словарей системы,
автоматизация извлечения и перевода терминов с помощью приложения «Менеджер терминологии LITE».
Создание базы выполненных переводов (Translation Memory) промт 2011 скачать бесплатно
Переведенные тексты можно сохранить в базе переводов (Translation Memory), чтобы в предстоящем не переводить их заново. Это особенно животрепещуще для типовых документов, содержащих повторяющуюся информацию договоры, техническая и юридическая документация, аннотации и т. п.

Возможности лингвистического редактора:
Лингвистический редактор «Переводчик PROMT» – база PROMT Professional, позволяющая выполнить перевод хоть какой трудности. Благодаря обновлению алгоритмов и существенному расширению словарей (в их добавлено наиболее 300000 новейших слов) перевод высокого качества можно получить уже при работе с базовым комплексом настроек функций. Для управления качеством перевода специализированных текстов PROMT Professional 2011 располагает широкими возможностями настройки. Пользователь может самостоятельно управлять теми ресурсами, которые необходимы для настройки перевода: выбирать тематику, подключать словари и базы переводов, входящих в состав тем основного словаря PROMT Professional . Созданный комплекс настроек системы, обеспечивающий необходимый пользователю качественный перевод, можно сохранить как новую тематику, в дополнение к уже заложенным в систему.

Направления перевода PROMT Professional:
Англо-Российский,
Русско-Английский,
Немецко-Российский,
Русско-Немецкий,
Французско-Российский,
Русско-Французский,
Испанско-Русский,
Российско-Испанский,
Итальянско- Русский,

PROMT Professional поддерживает функции перевода фаворитных офисных приложениях (перевод документов):
Microsoft Office (Word, Excel, Outlook, PowerPoint), Adobe (Adobe Reader, Adobe Acrobat Pro), open-source приложение OpenOffice.org Writer.

Перевод сайтов в Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox:
Хотите почитать зарубежные новости в собственном переводе?
Часто ищете тексты мировых музыкальных хитов?
Пытаетесь угадать, что сейчас дискуссируют на форуме?
Готовитесь к шопингу за границей?
PROMT Professional 9.0 поможет постоянно, когда необходимо, чтобы забугорный веб-сайт «заговорил» по-русски. Функция перевода встраивается в популярные браузеры Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox. Один клик – и веб-сайт вполне переведен на российский язык с сохранением форматирования и ссылок.

Что нового в PROMT Professional Rus v.9.0.443:
Поддержка 4-х мессенджеров: ICQ, Skype, QIP, MSN Messenger кейген в комплекте.
Перевод pdf-файлов.Новый уровень качества перевода. Пользовательский интерфейс новейшего поколения. Новая концепция справочных материалов.
Перевод сообщений в ICQ, Skype, QIP, MSN Messenger.
Непринужденно разговаривать с новеньким знакомым, живущим на другой половинке глобуса, нереально, поминутно заглядывая в словарь. Чтобы общение было очень живым, PROMT Professional 9.0 можно встроить в популярные программки для обмена сообщениями. Программа в считанные секунды переведет сообщение с зарубежного языка на российский или обратно. Вы можете настроить разные способы отображения перевода – в новеньком окне или в окне ведущегося диалога. Обратите внимание: эта функция сейчас доступна в 4-х наиболее фаворитных мессенджерах (ICQ, Skype, Квип, MSN Messenger), а не лишь в ICQ, как ранее.

Как активировать PROMT Professional Rus v.9.0.443:
1. Устанавливаем PROMT Professional на диск С.
2. Запускаем патч и патчим фаил Register, который находится в папке (C:\Program Files\PRMT9\PROTECT).
3. Запускаем PROMT Professional жмём Зарегистрировать. вводим любой лицензионный номер и жмём Зарегистрировать.
4. Жмём Активировать -выбираем Ручной режим активации.
5. Вводим любой код активации, жмём Готово.

Особенности PROMT Professional Rus v.9.0.443:
Название: PROMT Professional
Версия: Rus 9.0.443
Язык: Русский
Платформа: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7
Лекарство для PROMT Professional Rus v.9.0.443: Просто зарегистрируйтесь с любыми данными и всё пользуйтесь!

Если вам в повседневной жизни или работе постоянно приходится иметь дело с разнообразным контентом, написанном на английском языке, то хорошая и практичная программа-переводчик под названием PROMT Professional сможет сэкономить вам огромное количество временных и финансовых ресурсов. Это позволит Вам не приобретать дорогостоящие словари, самостоятельно корпеть над переводом каждого незнакомого слова или нанимать стороннего специалиста.

После открытия программы, вы можете выбрать самый подходящий для вашей работы язык: английский, либо русский (доступны и другие наиболее распространённые пары языков).

Скачать PROMT Professional можно бесплатно с нашего сайта или официального источника. Это один из немногих программных продуктов, который быстро и качественно осуществит перевод с английского на русский с транскрипцией (правильным произношением).


Сравнивая искусственный интеллект PROMT Professional с другими популярными программами можно практически сразу заметить, что качество перевода в нашем случае на голову выше аналогов. При этом богатство функционала позволяет использовать софт на полную катушку даже среднестатистическому пользователю – настолько простое ПО в эксплуатации . Например, пользователь в разделе настроек может задать специфические условия для перевода, сделать активным режим демонстрации различных вариантов перевода одного и того же слова, воздействовать на многие алгоритмы обработки текста, расширить или сузить список зарезервированных слов, задать транслитерацию определенных слов и многое другое.

Особенность работы с ПО

В числе особых функций программы вам предоставляется возможность сохранения уже сделанных переводов? Translation Memory. Она особенно будет полезна для тех пользователей, которые часто работают с техническими текстами, контрактами, спецификациями и тому подобным, ведь такого рода тексты очень часто повторяются.

ПРОМТ – это полноценный переводчик с английского на русский (правильный с транскрипцией), который бесплатно (зависит от лицензии) "обработает" исходный текст и выдаст итоговый.

Отдельно стоит отметить возможность правильного пакетного перевода с английского на русский языки. Если у вас накопился особенно большой объем документов на перевод, то быстрее разобраться с ним поможет полезное дополнение ПО под названием "Переводчик файлов" (он позволяет осуществить массовый перевод документов, – обработать несколько файлов за одну итерацию). Таким образом, запустив этот режим, пользователь может создать собственный список файлов, которые должны быть переведены с русского языка на английский по одной и той же схеме исходных параметров без необходимости ручной обработки каждого документа по отдельности.

Использование англо-русских словарей

Если пользователь заранее знает, какие именно словари (с учётом тематики текста) было бы полезно сразу подключить к процессу перевода, то он может сделать это вручную, просто указав в программе необходимые опции. При этом, в PROMT Professional можно подключить еще 120 тематических словарей, которые приобретаются отдельно.

Важно: при желании пользователь может самостоятельно составить серию собственных узкоспециализированных англо-русских словарей, которые дадут правильный перевод с транскрипцией и произношением, а также четко отвечать всем потребностям перевода в различных областях знаний. Ведь точность подбора профессиональных терминов может кардинально изменить суть содержания документа. В этом случае вы можете выбрать один из двух подходящих способов формирования отдельного словаря : "Расширенный" с большим количеством различных параметров на усмотрение пользователя и "Простой", который будет выглядеть как простая таблица данных, где большая часть работы будет выполняться в автоматическом режиме на основе встроенного искусственного интеллекта ПО.

PROMT Professional прекрасно взаимодействует с такими web-обозревателями как популярный FireFox и уже реже встречающийся на современных ПК Internet Explorer. Эта программа легко поможет вам справиться с переводом содержания файлов PDF, посодействует работе с мессенджером ICQ, никак не конфликтует с набором программ из MS Office 2003-2007 и может совместно использоваться с востребованной системой Translation Memory SDL TRADOS.

Вы можете легко и бесплатно переводить тексты не только с русского языка на английский, но и с русского на многие другие популярные языки. Возможности ПО позволяют работать и с и испанским и итальянским языками. Удобство работы с этим уникальным переводчиком состоит еще и в том, что вы можете переводить не только полный лист текста целиком, но и отдельно выделенные слова, что очень полезно, особенно когда приходится иметь дело с интернет-страницами. Осуществляя перевод всего текста, программа сохраняет изначальный порядок гипер-ссылок и загруженных изображений.

Дополнительные возможности ПРОМТ

Продуманный функционал PROMT Professional помогает извлекать и переводить текстовую информацию не только из форматов файлов OpenOffice Writer, Readiris, Power Point (версии с 2000 по 2007 год), Excel или Word, но и иметь дело с документами графического направления, например: JPEG, PDF, BMP или TIFF.


Если в вашей работе вы столкнулись с ситуацией, когда даже PROMT Professional не может отыскать наиболее точный перевод того или иного слова, то тогда можно воспользоваться разветвленной системой онлайн-словарей.

В богатых словарях Multitran содержится свыше 11 миллионов различных вариантов словосочетаний и отдельных слов. Результат поиска всегда можно перенести в один ваших собственных словарей. Итоговый материал перевода сохраняется в форматах TXT и RTF, которые являются наиболее распространёнными и читаемыми форматами файлов в мире.

Переводчик онлайн - бесплатный сервис перевода, работающий в интернете, использующий определенную службу перевода. Основные поисковые системы имеют службы перевода, своих онлайн переводчиков имеют производители известных приложений для перевода на другие языки.

Почти все пользователи на компьютере сталкиваются с необходимостью перевода отдельных слов, словосочетаний, какого-нибудь текста, или страницы сайта на иностранном языке. Бывает, что необходимо перевести текст из документа на компьютере.

Для перевода с иностранных языков создано немало программ и расширений для браузеров, которые неплохо справляются со своими функциями. Если подобных приложений нет на компьютере, то в большинстве случаев, пользователю поможет бесплатный переводчик языков онлайн, которым можно воспользоваться на странице сайта сервиса, при подключенном интернет соединении.

Следует учитывать, что это все-таки машинный перевод, поэтому возможны некоторые шероховатости при переводе. Используя несколько разных служб для перевода можно найти вполне приемлемый вариант.

В статье представлено 7 служб перевода, использующих разные переводчики, отличающие технологиями и функциональными возможностями: Google Переводчик, Яндекс.Переводчик, Переводчик Bing, Переводчик PROMT, онлайн переводчик Pragma, онлайн переводчик Babylon, онлайн словарь Lingvo Live.

Большая часть из представленных онлайн переводчиков поддерживают большое количество языков и языковых пар для перевода, все поддерживают перевод с английского на русский язык и обратно. Кроме собственно перевода текста, некоторые онлайн переводчики предоставляют возможность прослушать перевод с произношением оригинального теста и переведенных слов, показывают транскрипцию, предоставляют другую дополнительную информацию о переводимом слове или выражении.

Google Переводчик

Google Переводчик заслуженно пользуется большой популярностью у пользователей. Переводчик Гугл онлайн поддерживает перевод на 103 языка.

После входа на страницу сайта, вы увидите два поля: одно поле предназначено для вставки текста, который следует перевести на один из поддерживаемых языков, а в другом поле отобразится перевод текста на выбранный язык.

Выше находятся кнопки для выбора языка оригинального текста, и для выбора языка на который нужно перевести.

Для перевода с иностранного языка с помощью Google переводчик выполните следующие шаги:

  1. Вставьте в поле текст, адрес веб-сайта, или добавьте документ, который необходимо перевести на другой язык.
  2. Выберите один из предложенных языков (если вы знаете, на каком языке написан текст, слово или выражение), или нажмите на кнопку «Определить язык» для автоматического автоопределения языка.
  3. Выберите язык, на который необходимо перевести данный текст, воспользовавшись кнопками с предложенными языками, или выбрав язык самостоятельно.
  4. Получите результат перевода.

Переводимый текст можно прослушать на оригинальном языке с помощью голосового движка. В службе перевода Google Translator доступен выбор способа ввода. Поддерживается перевод текста до 5000 знаков.

Под полем ввода для перевода отображается транскрипция данного текста, а под полем для перевода отображается транслитерация переведенного текста.

Под полями для перевода находится дополнительная полезная информация: определение, похожие слова, варианты перевода.

Яндекс.Переводчик

Яндекс Переводчик онлайн поддерживает 94 языка, в том числе языки народов России и стран бывшего Советского Союза.

На странице Яндекс Переводчика (translate.yandex.ru) для перевода используются три вкладки: «Текст», «Сайт», «Картинка».

Перевод текста в Яндекс переводчике выполняется следующим образом:

  1. Введите текст или адрес сайта.
  2. По умолчанию, в переводчике Яндекса работает автоопределение, переводчик самостоятельно определяет язык для введенного текста. Кликните курсором мыши по автоматически выбранному языку, для самостоятельно выбора одного из поддерживаемых языков.
  3. В правом поле отобразится результат перевода вставленного текста.

Переводимый текст можно озвучить, ввести текст с помощью голосового ввода или экранной клавиатуры. Под полями отображается информация о переводимом слове: синонимы, антонимы, родственные слова, словарь, предложения.

  • Обратите внимание на то, что по умолчанию в Яндекс переводчике включена новая технология перевода, в которой участвуют нейронная сеть и статистическая модель. Затем автоматически выбирается наилучший вариант перевода. Имеете в виду, что данный способ не всегда выдает точный перевод. Поэтому дополнительно проверьте перевод, отключив функцию «Новая технология перевода».

Яндекс.Переводчик поддерживает перевод текста размером до 10000 знаков.

В Яндекс переводчик встроена функция оптического распознавания символов на изображениях (OCR). Прочитайте статью , как пользователь может перевести с помощью Яндекс Переводчика текст с фото во вкладке «Картинки».

Онлайн переводчик Bing

Онлайн переводчик Bing использует языковую службу Майкрософт, поддерживает перевод на 61 язык.

Для перевода в Microsoft Translator выполните следующие действия:

  1. В поле для ввода введите текст или URL-адрес веб-страницы.
  2. Выберите язык для переводимого текста (по умолчанию работает автоопределение).
  3. Выберите язык для перевода.
  4. Нажмите на кнопку «Перевести».
  5. Посмотрите на результат перевода.

Под полем перевода вы найдете альтернативный перевод.

Переводчик Bing Translator переводит текст размером до 5000 символов.

Онлайн переводчик PROMT

Онлайн переводчик PROMT принадлежит одноименной компании, известной своими программами. ПРОМТ переводчик онлайн поддерживает перевод на 16 языков.

Для перевода на сайте Translate.Ru выполните последовательные шаги:

  1. Нажмите на «Определить тематику», выберите подходящую тематику для лучшего перевода (сервис предоставляет большой выбор тематик). Если вы затрудняетесь с выбором тематики, сервис перевода самостоятельно определит тематику для данного текста.
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The University of Cambridge (informally known as "Cambridge University" or simply "Cambridge"; abbreviated as "Cantab" in post-nominals) is acollegiate public research university in Cambridge, England. Founded in 1209, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world"sthird-oldest surviving university. It grew out of an association formed by scholars leaving the University of Oxford after a dispute with townsfolk; the two "ancient universities" have many common features and are often jointly referred to as "Oxbridge". Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six Schools. The university occupies buildings throughout the town, many of which are of historical importance. The colleges are self-governing institutions founded as integral parts of the university. In the year ended 31 July 2013, the university had a total income of £1.44 billion, of which £332 million was from research grants and contracts. The central university and colleges have a combined endowment of around £4.9 billion, the largest of any university outside the United States. Cambridge is a member of many associations, and forms part of the "golden triangle" of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre. The university is closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as "Silicon Fen". Students" learning involves lectures and laboratory sessions organised by departments, and supervisions provided by the colleges. The university operates eight arts, cultural, and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum and a botanic garden. Cambridge"s libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, 8 million of which are in Cambridge University Library which is a legal deposit library. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world"s oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. Cambridge is regularly placed among the world"s best universities in different university rankings. Beside academic studies, student life is centred on the colleges and numerous pan-university artistic activities, sports clubs and societies. Cambridge has many notable alumni, including several eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, and 90 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with it. Throughout its history the university has featured in literature and artistic works by numerous authors including Geoffrey Chaucer, E. M. Forster and C. P. Snow. Contents 1 History o 1.1 Foundation of the colleges o 1.2 Mathematics and mathematical physics o 1.3 Modern period ▪ 1.3.1 Parliamentary representation o 1.4 Women"s education o 1.5 Myths, legends and traditions 2 Locations and buildings o 2.1 Buildings o 2.2 Sites o 2.3 "Town and Gown" 3 Organisation and administration o 3.1 Colleges o 3.2 Schools, faculties and departments o 3.3 Central administration ▪ 3.3.1 Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor ▪ 3.3.2 Senate and the Regent House ▪ 3.3.3 Council and the General Board o 3.4 Finances ▪ 3.4.1 Benefactions and fundraising o 3.5 Affiliations and memberships 4 Academic profile o 4.1 Admissions ▪ 4.1.1 Procedure ▪ 4.1.2 Access o 4.2 Teaching o 4.3 Research o 4.4 Graduation o 4.5 Libraries and museums o 4.6 Publishing and assessments o 4.7 Reputation and rankings 5 Student life o 5.1 Students" Union o 5.2 Sport o 5.3 Societies o 5.4 Newspapers and radio o 5.5 JCR and MCR o 5.6 Formal Halls and May Balls 6 Notable alumni and academics o 6.1 Mathematics and sciences o 6.2 Humanities, music and art o 6.3 Literature o 6.4 Sports o 6.5 Education o 6.6 Politics 7 In literature and popular culture 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links History See also: Timeline of Cambridge history The official founding of Cambridge University is traced to the enhancement, by a charter in 1231 from King Henry III of England (the first English university to be granted one; Oxford followed in 1248), which awarded the ius non-trahi extra (a right to discipline its own members) plus some exemption from taxes, and a bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX that gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter by Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, and confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other Europeanmedieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses. Foundation of the colleges Clare College (left) and part ofKing"s College, including King"s College Chapel (centre), built between 1441 and 1515 Emmanuel College Chapel The colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself. The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge"s first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but colleges continued to be established throughout the centuries to modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and Downing in 1800. The most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college (it was previously an "Approved Society" affiliated with the university). In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, and were often associated with chapels or abbeys. A change in the colleges" focus occurred in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy". In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law, and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics. As Cambridge moved away from Canon Law, it also moved away from Catholicism. As early as the 1520s, Lutheranism and what was to become more broadly known as theProtestant Reformation were making their presence felt in the intellectual discourse of the university. Among those involved was Thomas Cranmer, later to become Archbishop of Canterbury. As it became convenient to Henry VIII in the 1530s, the King looked to Cranmer and others (within and without Cambridge) to craft a new path that was different from Catholicism yet also different from what Martin Luther had in mind. Nearly a century later, the university was at the centre of a Protestant schism. Many nobles, intellectuals and even common folk saw the ways of the Church of England as being too similar to the Catholic Church and that it was used by the crown to usurp the rightful powers of the counties. East Anglia was the centre of what became the Puritanmovement and at Cambridge, it was particularly strong at Emmanuel, St Catharine"s Hall, Sidney Sussex and Christ"s College. They produced many "non-conformist" graduates who greatly influenced, by social position or pulpit, the approximately 20,000 Puritans who left for New England and especially the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Great Migration decade of the 1630s. Oliver Cromwell, Parliamentary commander during the English Civil War and head of the English Commonwealth (1649–1660), attended Sidney Sussex. Mathematics and mathematical physics Sir Isaac Newton was a student of the University of Cambridge Examination in mathematics was once compulsory for all undergraduates studying for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the main first degree at Cambridge in both arts and sciences. From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained an especially strong emphasis on applied mathematics, particularly mathematical physics. The exam is known as a Tripos. Students awarded first-class honours after completing the mathematics Tripos are termed wranglers, and the top student among them is theSenior Wrangler. The Cambridge Mathematical Tripos is competitive and has helped produce some of the most famous names in British science, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin and Lord Rayleigh. However, some famous students, such as G. H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were too interested in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subject itself. Pure mathematics at Cambridge in the 19th century had great achievements but also missed out on substantial developments in French and German mathematics. Pure mathematical research at Cambridge finally reached the highest international standard in the early 20th century, thanks above all to G. H. Hardy and his collaborator, J. E. Littlewood. In geometry, W. V. D. Hodge brought Cambridge into the international mainstream in the 1930s. Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. Cambridge alumni have won six Fields Medals and one Abel Prize for mathematics, while individuals representing Cambridge have won four Fields Medals. The University also runs a Master of Advanced Study course in mathematics. Modern period Trinity Lane in the snow, with King"s College Chapel (centre), Clare CollegeChapel (right), and the Old Schools(left) After the Cambridge University Act formalised the organizational structure of the University, the study of many new subjects was introduced, such as theology, history andmodern languages. Resources necessary for new courses in the arts, architecture and archaeology were generously donated by Richard Fitzwilliam of Trinity College.Between 1896 and 1902, Downing College sold part of its land to build the Downing Site, comprising new scientific laboratories for anatomy, genetics and Earth sciences.During the same period, the New Museums Site was erected, including the Cavendish Laboratory, which has since moved to the West Cambridge Site, and other departments for chemistry and medicine. In the First World War, 13,878 members of the University served and 2,470 were killed. Teaching, and the fees it earned, came almost to a stop and severe financial difficulties followed. As a consequence the University first received systematic state support in 1919, and a Royal Commission appointed in 1920 recommended that the University (but not the Colleges) should receive an annual grant. Following the Second World War, the University saw a rapid expansion of student numbers and available places; this was partly due to the success and popularity gained by many Cambridge scientists. Parliamentary representation Main article: University of Cambridge (UK Parliament constituency) The university was one of only eight UK universities to hold a parliamentary seat in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The constituency was created by a Royal Charter of 1603 and returned two Members of Parliament. It was abolished in 1950 by the Representation of the People Act 1948. The constituency was not a geographical area. Its electorate consisted of the graduates of the University. Before 1918 the franchise was restricted to male graduates with a Doctorate or MA degree. Women"s education Newnham College, one of three existing women"s colleges For many years only male students were enrolled into the university. The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded by Emily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham Collegein 1872 (founded by Anne Clough and Henry Sidgwick), followed by Hughes Hall in 1885 (founded by Elizabeth Phillips Hughes as the Cambridge Teaching College for Women),Murray Edwards College (founded by Rosemary Murray as New Hall) in 1954, and Lucy Cavendish College in 1965. The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1948. Women were allowed to study courses, sit examinations, and have their results recorded from 1881; for a brief period after the turn of the twentieth century, this allowed the "steamboat ladies" to receive ad eundem degrees from the University of Dublin. From 1921 women were awarded diplomas which "conferred the Title of the Degree of Bachelor of Arts". As they were not "admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts" they were excluded from the governing of the university. Since students must belong to a college, and since established colleges remained closed to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established only for women. Starting with Churchill, Clare and King"s Colleges, all of the men"s colleges began to admit women between 1972 and 1988. One women"s college, Girton, also began to admit male students from 1979, but the other women"s colleges did not follow suit. As a result of St Hilda"s College, Oxford, ending its ban on male students in 2008, Cambridge is now the only remaining United Kingdom University with colleges which refuse to admit males, with three such institutions (Newnham, Murray Edwards and Lucy Cavendish). In the academic year 2004–5, the university"s student sex ratio, including post-graduates, was male 52%: female 48%. Myths, legends and traditions The Mathematical Bridge over the River Cam (at Queens" College) Main article: University of Cambridge legends See also: Category:Terminology of the University of Cambridge As an institution with such a long history, the University has developed a large number of myths and legends. The vast majority of these are untrue, but have been propagated nonetheless by generations of students and tour guides. A discontinued tradition is that of the wooden spoon, the "prize" awarded to the student with the lowest passing grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. The last of these spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St John"s College. It was over one metre in length and had an oar blade for a handle. It can now be seen outside the Senior Combination Room of St John"s. Since 1909, results were published alphabetically within class rather than score order. This made it harder to ascertain who the winner of the spoon was (unless there was only one person in the third class), and so the practice was abandoned. Each Christmas Eve, BBC radio and television broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols by the Choir of King"s College, Cambridge. The radio broadcast has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in 1928 (though the festival has existed since 1918). The radio broadcast is carried worldwide by the BBC World Serviceand is also syndicated to hundreds of radio stations in the USA. The first television broadcast of the festival was in 1954. Great Court of King"s College Locations and buildings Buildings The university occupies a central location within the city of Cambridge, with the students taking up a significant proportion (nearly 20%) of the town"s population and heavily distorting the age structure. Most of the older colleges are situated nearby the city centre and river Cam, along which it is traditional to punt to appreciate the buildings and surroundings. Examples of notable buildings include King"s College Chapel, the history faculty building designed by James Stirling; and the Cripps Building at St John"s College. The brickwork of several of the colleges is also notable: Queens" College contains "some of the earliest patterned brickwork in the country" and the brick walls of St John"s College provide examples of English bond, Flemish bond and Running bond. The entrance to the Cavendish Laboratory on the New Museums Site The Faculty of Education The Faculty of Law on the Sidgwick Site Sites The university is divided into several sites where the different departments are placed. The main ones are: Addenbrooke"s Downing Site Madingley/Girton New Museums Site Old Addenbroke"s Old Schools Silver Street/Mill Lane Sidgwick Site West Cambridge The university"s School of Clinical Medicine is based in Addenbrooke"s Hospital where students in medicine undergo their three-year clinical placement period after obtaining their BA degree, while the West Cambridge site is undergoing a major expansion and will host a new sports development. In addition, the Judge Business School, situated on Trumpington Street, provides management education courses since 1990 and is consistently ranked within the top 20 business schools globally by the Financial Times. Given that the sites are in relative close proximity to each other and the area around Cambridge is reasonably flat, one of the favourite modes of transport for students is the bicycle: a fifth of the journeys in the town is made by bike, a figure enhanced by the fact that pupils are not permitted to hold car park permits, except under special circumstances. "Town and Gown" The relationship between the university and the city has not always been positive. The phrase Town and Gown is employed to differentiate inhabitants of Cambridge from students at the university, who sometimes wear academical dress. There are many stories of ferocious rivalry between the two categories: in 1381, strong clashes brought about attacks and looting of university properties while locals contested the privileges granted by the government to the academic staff. Following these events, the Chancellor was given special powers allowing him to prosecute the criminals and re-establish order in the city. Attempts to reconcile the two groups followed over time, and in the 16th century agreements were signed to improve the quality of streets and student accommodation around the city. However, this was followed by new confrontations when theplague hit Cambridge in 1630 and colleges refused to help those affected by the disease by locking their sites. Nowadays, these conflicts have somewhat subsided and the University has become an opportunity for employment among the population, providing an increased level of wealth in the area. The enormous growth in the number of high-tech, biotech, providers of services and related firms situated near the town has been termed the Cambridge Phenomenon: the addition of 1,500 new, registered companies and as many as 40,000 jobs between 1960 and 2010 has been directly related to the presence and importance of the educational institution. Organisation and administration View over Trinity College, Gonville and Caius, Trinity Hall and Clare College towards King"s CollegeChapel, seen from St John"s Collegechapel. On the left, just in front of King"s College chapel, is the UniversitySenate House Cambridge is a collegiate university, meaning that it is made up of self-governing and independent colleges, each with its own property and income. Most colleges bring together academics and students from a broad range of disciplines, and within each faculty, school or department within the university, academics from many different colleges will be found. The faculties are responsible for ensuring that lectures are given, arranging seminars, performing research and determining the syllabi for teaching, overseen by the General Board. Together with the central administration headed by the Vice-Chancellor, they make up the entire Cambridge University. Facilities such as libraries are provided on all these levels: by the University (the Cambridge University Library), by the Faculties (Faculty libraries such as the Squire Law Library), and by the individual colleges (all of which maintain a multi-discipline library, generally aimed mainly at their undergraduates). Colleges Main article: Colleges of the University of Cambridge The President"s Lodge at Queens" College The Bridge of Sighs at St John"s College The colleges are self-governing institutions with their own endowments and property, founded as integral parts of the university. All students and most academics are attached to a college. Their importance lies in the housing, welfare, social functions, and undergraduate teaching they provide. All faculties, departments, research centres, and laboratories belong to the university, which arranges lectures and awards degrees, but undergraduates receive their supervisions-small-group teaching sessions, often with just one student-within the colleges. Each college appoints its own teaching staff and fellows, who are also members of a university department. The colleges also decide which undergraduates to admit to the university, in accordance with university regulations. Cambridge has 31 colleges, of which three, Murray Edwards, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish, admit women only. The other colleges are mixed, though most were originally all-male. Darwin was the first college to admit both men and women, while Churchill, Clare, and King"s were the first previously all-male colleges to admit female undergraduates, in 1972. In 1988 Magdalene became the last all-male college to accept women. Clare Hall and Darwin admit only postgraduates, and Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmund"s and Wolfson admit only mature (i.e. 21 years or older on date of matriculation) students, encompassing both undergraduate and graduate students. All other colleges admit both undergraduate and postgraduate students with no age restrictions. Colleges are not required to admit students in all subjects, with some colleges choosing not to offer subjects such as architecture, history of art or theology, but most offer close to the complete range. Some colleges maintain a bias towards certain subjects, for example with Churchill leaning towards the sciences and engineering, while others such asSt Catharine"s aim for a balanced intake. Others maintain much more informal reputations, such as for the students of King"s College to hold left-wing political views, orRobinson College and Churchill College"s attempts to minimise its environmental impact. Costs to students (accommodation and food prices) vary considerably from college to college. Similarly, college expenditure on student education also varies widely between individual colleges. There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, separate from Cambridge University, including Westcott House, Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College, that are, to a lesser degree, affiliated to the university and are members of the Cambridge Theological Federation. The 31 colleges are: 1. King"s 8. Trinity Hall 16. Sidney Sussex 24. Darwin 2. Trinity 9. Corpus Christi 17. Downing 25. Wolfson 3. St John"s 10. Queens" 18. Girton 26. Clare Hall 11. St Catharine"s 19. Newnham 27. Robinson 4. Peterhouse 12. Jesus 20. Selwyn 28. Lucy Cavendish 5. Clare 13. Christ"s 21. Fitzwilliam 29. St Edmund"s 6. Pembroke 14. Magdalene 22. Churchill 30. Hughes Hall 7. Gonville & Caius 15. Emmanuel 23. Murray Edwards 31. Homerton Schools, faculties and departments Faculty of Divinity at Cambridge University In addition to the 31 colleges, the university is made up of over 150 departments, faculties, schools, syndicates and other institutions. Members of these are usually also members of one of the colleges and responsibility for running the entire academic programme of the university is divided amongst them. The university also houses the Institute of Continuing Education, a centre for part-time study. The entrance to the administrative centre of the university, the Old Schools A "School" in the University of Cambridge is a broad administrative grouping of related faculties and other units. Each has an elected supervisory body-the "Council" of the school-comprising representatives of the constituent bodies. There are six schools: Arts and Humanities Biological Sciences Clinical Medicine Humanities and Social Sciences Physical Sciences Technology Teaching and research in Cambridge is organised by faculties. The faculties have different organisational sub-structures which partly reflect their history and partly their operational needs, which may include a number of departments and other institutions. In addition, a small number of bodies entitled "Syndicates" have responsibilities for teaching and research, e.g. Cambridge Assessment, the University Press, and the University Library. Central administration Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor Officers of the Regent House, including Vice-Chancellor Borysiewicz, after a graduation ceremony See also: List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of Cambridge and List of Chancellors of the University of Cambridge The office of Chancellor of the University, for which there are no term limits, is mainly ceremonial and is held by David Sainsbury, Baron Sainsbury of Turville, following the retirement of the Duke of Edinburgh on his 90th birthday in June 2011. Lord Sainsbury was nominated by the official Nomination Board to succeed him, and Abdul Arain, owner of a local grocery store, Brian Blessed and Michael Mansfield were also nominated. The election took place on 14 and 15 October 2011. David Sainsbury won the election taking 2,893 of the 5,888 votes cast, winning on the first count. The current Vice-Chancellor is Leszek Borysiewicz. While the Chancellor"s office is ceremonial, the Vice-Chancellor is the de facto principal administrative officer of the University. The university"s internal governance is carried out almost entirely by its own members, with very little external representation on its governing body, the Regent House (though there is external representation on the Audit Committee, and there are four external members on the University"s Council, who are the only external members of the Regent House). Senate and the Regent House Light show on the Senate House, for the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the university The front of Clare College The Senate consists of all holders of the MA degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward, and elected two members of the House of Commons until theCambridge University constituency was abolished in 1950. Prior to 1926, it was the University"s governing body, fulfilling the functions that the Regent House fulfils today. The Regent House is the University"s governing body, a direct democracy comprising all resident senior members of the University and the Colleges, together with the Chancellor, the High Steward, the Deputy High Steward, and the Commissary. The public representatives of the Regent House are the two Proctors, elected to serve for one year, on the nomination of the Colleges. Council and the General Board Although the University Council is the principal executive and policy-making body of the University, it must report and be accountable to the Regent House through a variety of checks and balances. It has the right of reporting to the University, and is obliged to advise the Regent House on matters of general concern to the University. It does both of these by causing notices to be published by authority in the Cambridge University Reporter, the official journal of the University. Since January 2005, the membership of the Council has included two external members, and the Regent House voted for an increase from two to four in the number of external members in March 2008, and this was approved by Her Majesty the Queen in July 2008. Senate House Passage in the snow with Senate House on the right and Gonville and Caius College on the left. The General Board of the Faculties is responsible for the academic and educational policy of the University, and is accountable to the Council for its management of these affairs. Faculty Boards are responsible to the General Board; other Boards and Syndicates are responsible either to the General Board (if primarily for academic purposes) or to the Council. In this way, the various arms of the University are kept under the supervision of the central administration, and thus the Regent House. Finances Cambridge is by far the wealthiest university in the UK and in the whole of Europe, with an endowment of £4.9 billion in 2013. This is made up of around £2.13 billion tied directly to the university and £2.8 billion to the colleges. As of 2013, Oxford had an endowment valued at around £3.9 billion. The university"s operating budget was £1.44 billion in 2013. Each college is an independent charitable institution with its own endowment, separate from that of the central university endowment. If ranked on a US university endowment table on most recent figures, Cambridge would rank fifth compared with the eight Ivy League institutions (subject to market fluctuations) and eleventh with all US universities. Comparisons between Cambridge"s endowment and those of other top US universities are, however, inaccurate because being a partially state-funded public university (although the status of Cambridge as a public university cannot be compared with US or European public universities as, for example, the state does not "own" the university and its colleges are private institutions), Cambridge receives a major portion of its income through education and research grants from the British Government. In 2006–7, it was reported that approximately one third of Cambridge"s income comes from UK government funding for teaching and research, with another third coming from other research grants. Endowment income contributes around £130 million. The University also receives a significant income in annual transfers from the Cambridge University Press. Benefactions and fundraising In 2000, Bill Gates of Microsoft donated US$210 million through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to endow the Gates Scholarships for students from outside the UK seeking postgraduate study at Cambridge. In 2005 the Cambridge 800th Anniversary Campaign was launched, aimed at raising £1 billion by 2012-the first US-style university fund-raising campaign in Europe. This aim was reached in the financial year 2009–2010, raising £1.037 billion. In the year ended 31 July 2013 the university had a total income of £1.44 billion, of which £332 million was from research grants and contracts. Affiliations and memberships Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the G5, the League of European Research Universities, and the International Alliance of Research Universities, and forms part of the "golden triangle" of British universities. It is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as "Silicon Fen", and as part of the Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre. Academic profile Great Court of Trinity College, dating back to the 17th Century Peterhouse Old Court The dining hall at King"s College Admissions Procedure[ Undergraduate applications to Cambridge must be made through UCAS in time for the early deadline, currently mid-October in the year before starting. Until the 1980s candidates for all subjects were required to sit special entrance examinations, since replaced by additional tests for some subjects, such as the Thinking Skills Assessment and the Cambridge Law Test. The University is considering reintroducing an admissions exam for all subjects with effect from 2016. Most applicants who are called for interview will have been predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or the equivalent in other qualifications, such as getting at least 7,7,6 for higher-level subjects at IB. The A* A-level grade (introduced in 2010) now plays a part in the acceptance of applications, with the university"s standard offer for most courses being set at A*AA, with A*A*A for sciences courses. Due to a very high proportion of applicants receiving the highest school grades, the interview process is crucial for distinguishing between the most able candidates. The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity. For exceptional candidates, a Matriculation Offer is sometimes offered, requiring only two A-levels at grade E or above. In 2006, 5,228 students who were rejected went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 63% of all applicants rejected.The acceptance rate for students in the 2012-2013 cycle was 21.9%. Strong applicants who are not successful at their chosen college may be placed in the Winter Pool, where they can be offered places by other colleges. This is in order to maintain consistency throughout the colleges, some of which receive more applicants than others. Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicant"s subject. This effectively guarantees admission to a college-though not necessarily the applicant"s preferred choice. Access Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair; whether enough students fromstate schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge; and whether these students succeed in gaining entry. In 2007–08, 57% of all successful applicants were from state schools (roughly 93 percent of all students in the UK attend state schools). Critics have argued that the lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridge"s reputation for many years, and the University has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress the imbalance. Others counter that government pressure to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate social engineering. The proportion of undergraduates drawn from independent schools has dropped over the years, and such applicants now form a (very large) minority (43%) of the intake. In 2005, 32% of the 3599 applicants from independent schools were admitted to Cambridge, as opposed to 24% of the 6674 applications from state schools. In 2008 the University of Cambridge received a gift of £4m to improve its accessibility to candidates from maintained schools. Cambridge, together with Oxford and Durham, is among those universities that have adopted formulae that gives a rating to the GCSE performance of every school in the country to "weight" the scores of university applicants. With the release of admissions figures, a 2013 article in The Guardian reported that ethnic minority candidates had lower success rates in individual subjects even when they had the same grades as white applicants. The University was hence criticised for what was seen as institutional discrimination against ethnic minority applicants in favour of white applicants. The University denied the claims of institutional discrimination by stating the figures didn"t take into account "other variables". A following article stated that in the years 2010–2012 ethnic minority applicants to medicine with 3 A* grades or higher were 20% less likely to gain admission than white applicants with similar grades. The University refused to provide figures for a wider range of subjects claiming it would be too costly. Teaching Results for the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos are read out inside Senate House and then tossed from the balcony The academic year is divided into three academic terms, determined by the Statutes of the University. Michaelmas term lasts from October to December; Lent term from January to March; and Easter term from April to June. Within these terms undergraduate teaching takes place within eight-week periods called Full Terms. According to the University statutes, it is a requirement that during this period all students should live within 3 miles of the Church of St Mary the Great; this is defined as Keeping term. Pupils can graduate only if they fulfill this condition for nine terms (three years) when obtaining a Bachelor of Arts or twelve terms (four years) when studying for a Master of Science, Engineering or Mathematics. These terms are shorter than those of many other British universities. Undergraduates are also expected to prepare heavily in the three holidays (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations). Triposes involve a mixture of lectures (organised by the university departments), and supervisions (organised by the colleges). Science subjects also involve laboratory sessions, organised by the departments. The relative importance of these methods of teaching varies according to the needs of the subject. Supervisions are typically weekly hour-long sessions in which small groups of students (usually between one and three) meet with a member of the teaching staff or with a doctoral student. Students are normally required to complete an assignment in advance of the supervision, which they will discuss with the supervisor during the session, along with any concerns or difficulties they have had with the material presented in that week"s lectures. The assignment is often an essay on a subject set by the supervisor, or a problem sheet set by the lecturer. Depending on the subject and college, students might receive between one and four supervisions per week. This pedagogical system is often cited as being unique to Oxford (where "supervisions" are known as "tutorials") and Cambridge. A tutor named William Farish developed the concept of grading students" work quantitatively at the University of Cambridge in 1792. Research See also: Category:Departments of the University of Cambridge The University of Cambridge has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines. All research and lectures are conducted by University Departments. The colleges are in charge of giving or arranging most supervisions, student accommodation, and funding most extracurricular activities. During the 1990s Cambridge added a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories on several University sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites. Cambridge also has a research partnership with MIT in the United States: the Cambridge–MIT Institute. Graduation Graduands enter the Senate Houseat a graduation ceremony University officials leading the graduands into the Senate House At the University of Cambridge, each graduation is a separate act of the university"s governing body, the Regent House, and must be voted on as with any other act. A formal meeting of the Regent House, known as a Congregation, is held for this purpose. Graduates receiving an undergraduate degree wear the academic dress that they were entitled to before graduating: for example, most students becoming Bachelors of Arts wear undergraduate gowns and not BA gowns. Graduates receiving a postgraduate degree (e.g. PhD or Master"s) wear the academic dress that they were entitled to before graduating, only if their first degree was also from the University of Cambridge; if their first degree is from another university, they wear the academic dress of the degree that they are about to receive, the BA gown without the strings if they are under 24 years of age, or the MA gown without strings if they are 24 and over. Graduates are presented in the Senate House college by college, in order of foundation or recognition by the university, except for the royal colleges. During the congregation, graduands are brought forth by the Praelector of their college, who takes them by the right hand, and presents them to the vice-chancellor for the degree they are about to take. The Praelector presents graduands with the following Latin statement, substituting "____" with the name of the degree: "Dignissima domina, Domina Procancellaria et tota Academia praesento vobis hunc virum quem scio tam moribus quam doctrina esse idoneum ad gradum assequendum _____; idque tibi fide mea praesto totique Academiae. (Most worthy Vice-Chancellor and the whole University, I present to you this man whom I know to be suitable as much by character as by learning to proceed to the degree of ____; for which I pledge my faith to you and to the whole University.)" and female graduands with the following: "Dignissima domina, Domina Procancellaria et tota Academia praesento vobis hanc mulierem quam scio tam moribus quam doctrina esse idoneam ad gradum assequendum ____; idque tibi fide mea praesto totique Academiae. (Most worthy Vice-Chancellor and the whole University, I present to you this woman whom I know to be suitable as much by character as by learning to proceed to the degree of ____; for which I pledge my faith to you and to the whole University.)" After presentation, the graduand is called by name and kneels before the vice-chancellor and proffers their hands to the vice-chancellor, who clasps them and then confers the degree through the following Latin statement-the Trinitarian formula (in nomine Patris...) may be omitted at the request of the graduand: "Auctoritate mihi commissa admitto te ad gradum ____, in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti. (By the authority committed to me, I admit you to the degree of ____, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.)" The now-graduate then rises, bows and leaves the Senate House through the Doctor"s door, where he or she receives his or her certificate, into Senate House Passage. Libraries and museums The university has 114 libraries. The Cambridge University Library is the central research library, which holds over 8 million volumes. It is a legal deposit library, therefore it is entitled to request a free copy of every book published in the UK and Ireland. In addition to the University Library and its dependents, every faculty has a specialised library; for example, the History Faculty"s Seeley Historical Library possesses more than 100,000 books. Furthermore, every college has a library as well, partially for the purposes of undergraduate teaching, and the older colleges often possess many early books and manuscripts in a separate library. For exampleTrinity College"s Wren Library has more than 200,000 books printed before 1800, while Corpus Christi College"s Parker Librarypossesses one of the greatest collections of medieval manuscripts in the world, with over 600 manuscripts. Cambridge University operates eight arts, cultural, and scientific museums, and a botanic garden. The Fitzwilliam Museum, is the art and antiquities museum, the Kettle"s Yard is a contemporary art gallery, the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology houses the University"s collections of local antiquities, together with archaeological and ethnographic artefacts from around the world, theCambridge University Museum of Zoology houses a wide range of zoological specimens from around the world and is known for its iconicfinback whale skeleton that hangs outside. This Museum also has specimens collected by Charles Darwin. Other museums include, theMuseum of Classical Archaeology, the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, the Sedgwick Museum of Earth Sciences which is the geology museum of the University, the Polar Museum, part of the Scott Polar Research Institute which is dedicated to Captain Scott and his men, and focuses on the exploration of the Polar Regions. The Cambridge University Botanic Garden is the botanic garden of the University, created in 1831. Student life Students" Union Main article: Cambridge University Students" Union The Cambridge University Students" Union (CUSU) serves to represent all the students within the University which automatically become members upon arrival. It was founded in 1964 as the Students" Representative Council (SRC); the six most important positions in the Union are occupied by Sabbatical officers. Sport Rowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges, notably the bumps races, and against Oxford, the Boat Race. There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from cricket and rugby, to chessand tiddlywinks. Athletes representing the University in certain sports entitle them to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of theBlues Committee, consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. There is also the self-described "unashamedly elite"Hawks" Club, which is for men only, whose membership is usually restricted to Cambridge Full Blues and Half Blues. The University of Cambridge Sports Centre opened in August 2013. Phase 1 includes a 37x34m Sports Hall, a Fitness Suite, a Strength and Conditioning Room, a Multi-Purpose Room and Eton and Rugby Fives courts. Future developments will include Squash courts, indoor and outdoor tennis courts and a swimming pool. The University also has an Athletics Track at Wilberforce Road, an Indoor Cricket School and Fenner"s Cricket Ground. Societies See also: List of social activities at the University of Cambridge and Category:Clubs and societies of the University of Cambridge Numerous student-run societies exist in order to encourage people who share a common passion or interest to periodically meet or discuss. As of 2010, there were 751 registered societies. In addition to these, individual colleges often promote their own societies and sports teams. The Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating. Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights, which are known for producing well-known show-business personalities. The Cambridge University Chamber Orchestra explores a range of programmes, from popular symphonies to lesser known works; membership of the orchestra is composed of students of the university. Newspapers and radio Student newspapers include the long-established Varsity and its younger rival, The Cambridge Student. Recently, both have been challenged by the emergence of The Tab, Cambridge"s first student tabloid. Together with colleagues from Anglia Ruskin University, students run a radio station, Cam FM, which provides members with an opportunity to produce and host weekly radio shows and promotes broadcast journalism, sports coverage, comedy and drama. JCR and MCR In addition to university-wide representation, students can benefit from their own college student unions, which are known as JCR (Junior Combination Room) for undergraduates and MCR (Middle Combination Room) for postgraduates. These serve as a link between college staff and members and consists of officers elected annually between the fellow students; individual JCR and MCRs also report to CUSU, which offers training courses for some of the most delicate positions within the body. Formal Halls and May Balls One of the most distinguishing aspects of student life at Cambridge is the possibility to take part in formal dinners at college. These are called Formal Hall and occur regularly during term time. Students sit down for a meal in their gowns, while Fellows eat separately onHigh Table: the beginning and end of the function is usually celebrated with a prayer. Special formals are organized for events such as Christmas or the Commemoration of Benefactors. After the exam period, May Week is held and it is customary to celebrate by attending May Balls. These are all-night long lavish parties held in the colleges where food and drinks are served and entertainment is provided. TIME magazine argues that some of the larger May Balls are among the best private parties in the word. Suicide Sunday, the first day of May Week, is a popular date for organizing garden parties. Sports Athletes who are university graduates include more than 123 Olympic medalists; they won a total of 170 medals, including 80 gold. The legendary Chinese six-time world table tennis champion Deng Yaping; the sprinter and athletics hero Harold Abrahams; the inventors of the modern game of Football, Winton and Thring; and George Mallory, the famed mountaineer and possibly the first man ever to reach the summit of Mount Everest all attended Cambridge. Education Notable educationalists to have attended the university include the founders and early professors of Harvard University, including John Harvard himself;Emily Davies, founder of Girton College, the first residential higher education institution for women, and John Haden Badley, founder of the first mixed-sex school in England.

Знать все языки мира просто невозможно, но это знание все же требуется. Компьютер может заменить эти знания, если скачать переводчик ПРОМТ. Это российская разработка, которая позволяет переводить тексты с различных языков.

PROMT считается эталоном в мире компьютерного перевода. Недавно проходили сравнительные тесты, в которых участвовало более 10 именитых словарей для компьютера. Результаты действительно впечатлили, разработка из России обошла всех своих конкурентов. И если по словарной базе все конкуренты были сопоставимы, то итоговый текст, легкость его чтения и грамотность, удивили всех. Согласитесь, что при переводе текста на компьютере, будь то онлайн переводчиком или в оффлайн версии, очень важно, чтобы итоговый текст легко читался и не потерял свой первоначальный смысл.

Как перевести текст на компьютере

Раньше для перевода текста требовались словари. Сегодня от них также невозможно отказаться, но они изменили свой внешний облик. Еще пару лет назад можно было встреть бумажные версии, но сегодня это пережиток прошлого. Намного удобней установить электронный словарь на компьютер и переводить за считанные секунды. Но ПРОМТ – это не просто словарь, это целый переводчик. Словарь от переводчика отличается сразу по ряду параметров:

  • Переводчик позволяет перевести сразу большой объем текста;
  • Словарь позволяет перевести конкретное слово;

Если у вас совершенно нет знаний в языке, который вам необходимо перевести, то словарь тут мало поможет. Одно слово можно и догадаться, но когда перед вам большой текст, тут то возникают проблемы. Более того, словарь нельзя использовать как профессиональный переводчик, это просто неудобно, а вот наоборот этот процесс работает значительно лучше. В результате вы сможете получить грамотный и правильный перевод за считанные секунды. Как работает скоростной перевод вы узнаете из видео:

Например, вы сможете добавить большую статью в окно программы, нажать одну кнопку и через минуту у вас будет текст на том языке, который вам нужен. Изначально утилита поддерживает английский и русский язык. Но вы можете расширить ее функционал, добавив дополнительные. Для этого вам предстоит скачать языковые пакеты. Например, вы сможете добавить немецкий, французский, итальянский и даже китайский. В базовую версию переводчика PROMT входит до 6 словарей и все это можно скачать бесплатно. Если вам потребуется больше словарей или расширенные функции, то утилиту придется купить. Но даже в этом случае программа является отличным выбором. А если учесть, что она может автоматически взаимодействовать с текстовым редактором



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